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Science Fiction Essays And Criticism
Spanish science fiction starts mid 19th century; depending on how it is defined, (1855) from or from — a trip to Saturn published in 1870-1871, but written in the 1840s — is the first science fiction novel. As such, science fiction was very popular in the second half of the 19th century, but mainly produced and , written by some of the most important authors of the and . The influence of also produced some singular works, like 's (1887), a story about time travel that predates the publication of by ; 's (1906), that describes robots and a "brain machine" very similar to our modern ; or ' (1912), the first in Spain about "artificial people". But the most prolific were , and , who published their adventures in the magazine . The 19th century up to the saw no less than four fictional trips to the Moon, one to Venus, five to Mars, one to Jupiter, and one to Saturn.
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After the fall of the Soviet Union, science fiction in the former Soviet republics is still written mostly in , which allows an appeal to a broader audience. Aside from Russians themselves, especially notable are , who have greatly contributed to science fiction and fantasy in Russian language. Among the most notable post-Soviet authors are , , and . Russia's film industry, however, has been less successful recently, producing only a few science fiction films, most of them are adaptations of books by the Strugatskys () or Bulychov (). Science fiction media in Russia is represented with such magazines as and .